SORTING THE TABLE: The table can be sorted by clicking on the header of each column. For instance, clicking on the header of the "Combined census" column will show at the top of the table the papers referring to a combined census. Similarly, papers can be sorted by year of the census or year of publication clicking on the header of the respective columns.

Last update (January 2019): Papers added for Germany, Italy, Poland and United Kingdom

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CountryYear of census Register-based censusCombined censusRolling censusTraditional censusVarious types/ general paper

Title of the paper

Year of
Austria2011 yy  yyChallenges in the transition from traditional to register–based census in Austria2012PDFPPT
Estonia2011 y y yyUse of administrative registers in census 2011. Estonian experience2012PDFPPT
Estonia2021X y y yyThe project for developing the methodology of register-based censuses in Estonia2014PDFPPT

Register-based population and housing census: methodology and developments thereof


Residency index and its applications in censuses and population statistics2016PDF

Estonia’s first register-based pilot census2017PDF

Indexes in demographic statistics: a methodology using nonstandard information for solving critical problems2017PDF
Finland1990 (since)X y y yFrom a traditional census towards a register-based census in Finland2006PDF y
France2004 (since) y yX yThe population census in France: from general census to “rolling census”2006PDF y
Germany2011 yX y yLessons learnt from a mixed-mode census for the future of social statistics2012PDF y

The combined census model in Germany – origins, lessons learned and future perspectives



2021, 2011 y ySupported by registers (2021)Supported by registers (2011)Lessons learned from the 2011 Italian census and innovations leading towards a continuous census2014PDFPPT

"Permanent census" using admin data and sample surveys

Preliminary Experimental: Results on the Italian Population and Housing Census Estimation Methods2018PDFPPT
Netherlands2001 (since)Using also data from surveys  y y yThe Dutch Virtual Census of 2001: A register–based approach combined with survey information2006PDF y
Netherlands +
other countries
2011y y y yComparing approaches of different (partly) register-based countries2012PDFPPT

New Zealand

 n.a. (strategy)


An overview of progress on the potential use of administrative data for census information in New Zealand: Census Transformation Programme (Statistics NZ information paper)

New Zealand n.a. (strategy)

Census Transformation – A Promising Future (Statistics NZ Cabinet paper)2015PDF 
Poland2011 y y yModern census in Poland2012PDFPPT

The evolutionary transition from the combined census to registers based census

Portugal2021 y yImplementing a register-based census – the Portuguese experience2012PDF y
Russian Federation2020 y y ySupported by sample surveys Russian Federation: plans and perspectives for the 2020 round2010PDFPPT
Slovakia2021, 2011  yX (2021) ySupported by registers (2011) Transition from traditional census to sample survey? (Experience from Population and Housing Census 2011)2012PDFPPT
Slovenia2011 y y y2011 register-based census in Slovenia - lessons learned2012PDF y
Spain2011 y y yA general approach to the importance and use of registers in the Spanish Census2012PDF y
Turkey2011 y y yThe 2011 Population and Housing Census of Turkey2012PDFPPT
United Kingdom2021 y yy  yXBeyond 2011 – the future of population statistics?2012PDFPPT
United Kingdom2021 and beyond

XEvaluating the potential for moving away from a traditional census2016PDFPPT
United Kingdom2021

Supported by administrative and survey data

Approach to using alternative data sources to support the 2021 Census in England and Wales

United States2010 y yy With yearly updates Reengineering the Census of Population and Housing2006PDF y
United States2020 y y y yPlanning for the 2020 United States Census2010PDFPPT
United States2020 y y ySupported by sample survey and admin data Path to the 2020 Census Design Decision2014PDF y
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